Legends of Diving Articles
Marine Technicians Handbook
Procedures for Shipboard Diving
James R. Stewart, 1971
Stewart wrote the first manual at
Institution of Oceanography for the dive community in California. This
is the first written for diving in the US.
The Scripps Institution of Oceanography
Marine Technicians Handbook
Procedures for Shipboard Diving
James R. Stewart
The University Guide for Diving Safety
Institute of Marine Resources
P.O. Box 109
La Jolla, California 92037
Sea Grant Publication No. 15
UNIVERSITY GUIDE FOR DIVING SAFETY
This guide has been promulgated by the University Conference of
Environmental Health and Safety Officers to assist all campuses in
developing underwater diving safety programs that will foster
reciprocity of diver certification among the campuses.
The text has been written by campus Diving Officers and Environmental
Health and Safety Officers and has been used as a basis for diving
safety programs on several campuses. The standards were developed over a
period of years, primarily by the Scripps Institution of Oceanography.
Adherence to these standards has proven both feasible and effective in
protecting health and safety in an inherently hazardous undertaking.
The Conference of Environmental Health and Safety Officers urges that
the Chancellors adopt this Guide as a basis for their campus programs so
that underwater research can achieve its full potential safely.
University Conference of Environmental Health and Safety Officers
March 16, 1967 Revised 1971
Definitions and Terms
Policy on Diving
2.30 Authority and Responsibility
3.20 Medical Evaluation
3.30 Text of Release and Waiver
3.40 Swimming and Skin Diving Tests
3.50 Learner's Permit for SCUBA Training
3.60 Pool Training
3.70 Ocean or Other Open Water Training
3.80 Written Examinations
4.20 Obtaining a Certificate
4.30 Depth Certification
4.40 Maintenance of Certification
4.50 Revocation of Certificate
5.10 SCUBA Regulators
5.20 Auxiliary SCUBA Equipment
5.30 Breathing — Air Standards
5.40 Sources of Breathing Air
5.50 Air Compressors
6.10 Certification Required
6.20 Diving Procedures
6.40 Diver's Responsibility
Suggested Campus Organization
II. Suggested Medical Evaluation
III. Release and Waiver
Emergency Procedures for University Divers in the La Jolla Area
Instructions to UCSD Switchboard
Recompression Chamber Listings
Marine Technician's Handbook
Procedures for Shipboard Diving
ONE DEFINITIONS AND TERMS
SCUBA or surface-supplied diver who has a current Campus Diving
Certificate. Expiration dates are specified in Section 4.40.
Underwater diving: SCUBA and surface-supplied.
Issued by the Campus as evidence of Campus approval for underwater
diving until the expiration date shown. See Section Four.
Abbreviation for Environmental Health and Safety.
Issued by the Campus as evidence of Campus approval for instruction in
underwater diving only as part of the training specified in Section
Open Circuit SCUBA
No portion of the breathing gas is rebreathed.
With due regard for local ground rules. Certified Divers from one Campus
are normally granted equivalent diving privileges on other University
campuses, and self-contained underwater breathing apparatus approved by
one Campus is normally thereby equally acceptable on other Campuses.
Reciprocity for ocean diving is not granted until the diver has
completed specific ocean training.
Self-contained underwater breathing apparatus.
Diving by University employees as a necessary part of their occupation,
and by registered University students diving under supervision by
University employees, as a necessary part of research or instruction,
constitutes diving under University Auspices.
POLICY ON DIVING
Diving Safety Program
The purposes of a diving safety program are to insure that all diving
under the auspices of the University of California is conducted in a
manner most likely to minimize accidental injury or occupational
illness, and to set forth rules, regulations and standards for training
and certification which will allow a working reciprocity between
campuses engaged in scientific diving.
2.12 The Guide for Diving Safety
The purpose of the Guide for Diving Safety is to set forth the basic
underwater diving safety policy, organization, regulations and
procedures for safety in diving operations and for reciprocity of diver
certification among the campuses.
2.13 Supplementary Campus Guides or Manuals
The Chancellors should promulgate supplementary campus guides or manuals
with additional rules and regulations to cover specific situations
existing on individual campuses. However, the regulations set forth in
this Guide for Diving Safety are basic and should be observed wherever
diving is conducted under the auspices of the University of California.
2.21 University Auspices
Underwater diving under the University auspices is limited to diving in
Academic work (instructional)
Training and certification for required University diving.
2.22 Training and Certification
Any person diving under University auspices is required to observe the
provisions of this Guide. Diving is not permitted by individuals until
they have met the requirements for diving pertinent to the level of the
All diving under University auspices shall be done with equipment,
regardless of ownership, which conforms to the standards set in Section
Five of this Guide.
The regulations herein shall be observed at all locations, whether or
not owned by the University, where diving is carried out under
2.30 AUTHORITY AND RESPONSIBILITY
Maximum authority and operational responsibility for the conduct of the
diving safety program on each campus, is vested in the Chancellor. He is
responsible for providing surveillance of campus diving activities,
interpreting University policies, and developing additional campus
policies, regulations and standards consistent with University policies.
(See Appendix I for suggested campus organization.)
2.32 University Deans
University Deans who are responsible for University-wide units and
personnel not under the jurisdiction of a Chancellor, may, by agreement
with a Chancellor or Chancellors, secure the services necessary to
develop and maintain a diving safety program in keeping with the
provisions of this Guide.
3.11 University and Non-University Applicants
Only persons diving under University auspices are eligible for
University training and certification. Generally these people will be
affiliated with the University. However, non-University people may be
admitted to the training program for underwater divers with the
permission of the Chancellor.
The applicant for training and certification shall normally be at least
eighteen years of age.
3.20 MEDICAL EVALUATION
Each applicant for diver training shall submit a statement signed by a
licensed physician, based on an appropriate medical evaluation,
attesting to the applicant's physical fitness for diving with SCUBA.
Each registered student applicant for diver training shall submit to the
Student Health Service a report of medical evaluation on a form approved
by the Director of the Student Health Service, signed by a California
licensed physician approved by the Director of the Student Health
Service, and attesting to the applicant's medical fitness for diving
with SCUBA. Based on this medical evaluation plus additional evaluation
if indicated, the Student Health Service will then issue a statement as
to whether or not the applicant is medically qualified to engage in
SCUBA diving. A complete medical evaluation must be accomplished prior
to commencement of SCUBA diving training and at least annually as long
as the student is registered and diving under University auspices. An
appropriate evaluation must also be accomplished after each significant
illness or injury.
(See Appendix II). 3.30 RELEASE AND WAIVER
All students and other persons (other than University employees) diving
under campus auspices shall execute a release holding The Regents
harmless from any claims which might arise in connection with SCUBA
It is not necessary, however, to require these releases from University
employees, either academic or non-academic, who dive in the course of
(Text of Release follows. Detachable copy, with appropriate signature
blanks, will be found in Appendix III, page 23. Extra copies available
from Diving Officer, UCSD.)
of Release and Waiver
I, the undersigned, for and in consideration of the granting of
permission by The Regents of the University of California, a California
corporation, for said undersigned to become a certified SCUBA diver and
to engage in SCUBA diving under the auspices of the University of
California, hereby hold(s) harmless and release(s) and forever
discharge(s) The Regents of the University of California, the Diving
Control Board, the Diving Officer, and all of The Regents' agents,
officers, assistants, and employees, either in their individual
capacities or by reason of their relationship to The said The Regents of
the University of California, and their successors, from any and all
claims and demands whatsoever, which the undersigned and any of them,
and the heirs, representatives, executors and administrators thereof, or
any other persons acting on the behalf, or on the behalf of their
respective agents, have or may have against the said The Regents of the
University of California, or any or all of the above-mentioned persons
or their successors, by reason of any accident, illness, or death, or
other consequences arising or resulting directly or indirectly from
participating in SCUBA diving under the auspices of the University of
California, and occurring during said participation, or at any time
subsequent thereto, excepting such injuries caused solely by gross
negligence or willful misconduct.
I understand that SCUBA diving may expose me to certain risks of injury
or death and I freely and voluntarily assume any and all risks of
injury, including death, which might result from my participation in
this activity. Such injury or death could result from the following
which is not intended to be exclusive: inadequate supervision or
training, improper equipment, and improper permission granted to the
Dated this___day of__________19.
3.40 SWIMMING AND SKIN DIVING TESTS
The applicant for training shall successfully perform the following
tests, or their equivalent, in the presence of an examiner specified by
3.41 Swim under water without fins for a distance of 75 feet without
3.42 Swim under water without fins for a distance of 125 feet, surfacing
not more than four times.
3.43 Swim 1,000 feet in less than 10 minutes without fins.
3.44 Demonstrate swimming with snorkel and fins with and without face
3.45 Surface dive without fins to a depth of 10 feet, recover a swimmer,
and carry the swimmer 75 feet at the surface.
3.46 Without fins, simulate rescue of a struggling swimmer. 3.50
LEARNER'S PERMIT FOR SCUBA TRAINING \
At the successful completion of the requirements for eligibility,
medical evaluation, and swimming and diving tests, the trainee would be
eligible for a University SCUBA learner's permit. This permits the
trainee to make underwater training dives with SCUBA under the
supervision of his instructor.
At the completion of pool training, the trainee must demonstrate his
ability to perform the following:
3.61 Rescue and tow, without fins, the simulated victim of an accident.
3.62 Remove and replace approved SCUBA and mask at a depth of 10 feet.
3.63 Clear face mask with no purge valve.
3.64 Enter water with full equipment by jumping in feet first, rolling
in backwards, rolling in forward.
3.65 Demonstrate "Buddy Breathing."
3.66 Demonstrate ability to alternate snorkel and SCUBA while swimming
in the deep end of the pool or in open water.
3.67 Demonstrate ability to enter the pool with all equipment in his
arms and don the equipment on the bottom of the pool.
3.68 Demonstrate understanding of water signs and signals.
3.69 Demonstrate knowledge of current artificial respiration methods and
external cardiac massage.
3.70 OCEAN OR OTHER OPEN WATER TRAINING
The trainee must satisfy an instructor, approved by the Chancellor, of
his judgment adequate for safe diving and his ability to perform the
following in the ocean or other open water:
3.71 Swim 1,000 feet without fins in the ocean or other open water, m
less than 12 minutes.
3.72 Surface dive to a depth of about 15 feet in the ocean or other open
water, without SCUBA.
3.73 Exchange mouthpiece with partner: (a) Partner with air, depth
greater than 15 feet; (b) Partner without air, depth greater than 15
3.74 Ditch equipment as directed by instructor and make free ascent to
surface. Return and replace equipment at a depth greater than 15 feet.
3.75 Enter and leave surf wearing SCUBA, if training for ocean diving.
3.76 Snorkel 1,000 feet with breathing apparatus in position.
Complete 12 ocean, or other open water dives, for a minimum total time
of four hours at a depth not to exceed 30 feet, accompanied or
supervised by a diving instructor designated by the Chancellor. No more
than four dives shall be made in any one day.
3.78 Compute his own air consumption rate in cu. ft./min. for each
training dive and describe to instructor how to detect low air pressure
in his tank.
3.79 Demonstrate "Buddy Breathing" while ascending. 3.80 WRITTEN
Before completing training, the trainee must pass a written examination
that demonstrates knowledge of the following:
3.81 How the various pieces of diving equipment function, and their
3.82 The physics and physiology of diving.
3.83 Hazards of voluntary and involuntary hyperventilation.
3.84 The causes, signs, symptoms, prevention, and first aid for the
Carbon dioxide excess
Carbon monoxide poisoning
3.85 The diving regulations and precautions.
3.86 Near-shore currents and waves,
3.87 Dangerous marine animals and fresh water hazards.
3.88 Underwater communication.
3.89 Procedures to be followed in emergencies, and current U. S. Navy
repetitive decompression tables and procedures.
Any person diving under University auspices must have one of the
4.11 a Learner's permit
4.11b Diver in Training Permit
This permit signifies the diver has completed a minimum of 36 hours of
training with at least two ocean dives and has successfully gained a
nationally recognized sport diving card. This diver participates in an
extended training program and may log additional training dives with an
approved certified buddy under normal working conditions.
4.12 SCUBA Diving Certificate
This is a permit to dive, usable only while it is current and for the
purpose intended. The certificate shall include the date of the most
recent physical examination (required annually), the depth to which the
diver is authorized to dive, and an expiration date.
4.13 Temporary SCUBA Diving Certificate
With the written approval of two officials authorized by the Chancellor
to certify divers, the documents listed below in 4.20 (except the
Release and Waiver) may be waived for a SCUBA Diver who has demonstrated
the required proficiency in diving and can contribute substantially to
the specific dives planned. The Temporary Diving Certificate shall be
usable only for the period specified.
4.20 OBTAINING A CERTIFICATE
At the conclusion of the training period, the following documents
recording the successful
completion of the requirements must be submitted:
Application for a SCUBA Diving Certificate
Medical Evaluation (See Section 3.20)
Release and Waiver (See Section 3.30)
Swimming and Skin Diving Tests (See Section 3.40)
Pool Training (See Section 3.60)
Ocean or Other Open Water Training
Log of Twelve Dives
Submission of these documents does not automatically result in a
certification. In every case the diver must satisfy at least two
qualified individuals, appointed by the Chancellor, that he is
sufficiently skilled and proficient to be certified. This skill will be
attested to by the signatures of the individuals.
Denial of Certificate
Any applicant who does not appear to possess the judgment necessary
under diving conditions for the safety of the diver and his partner may
be denied certification.
4.22 Waiver of Specific Requirements
If an applicant for certification can show evidence of previous
qualifying experience or training, he may be granted a waiver for
specific requirements of training and experience. The requirements for a
medical evaluation, written examination, or Release and Waiver shall not
in any case be waived.
All permits issued — Learner's Permit, Diver in Training Permit, Diving
Certificate, and Temporary Diving Certificate — shall be registered on
4.30 DEPTH CERTIFICATION
The Diving Certificate will authorize the holder to dive with SCUBA to
the depth indicated on the certificate.
4.31 T Certification of 30 foot depth
This is the initial certification, approved upon the successful
completion of the training listed in Section Three.
4.32 Certification for 60, 100, and 130 Foot Depths
A diver holding a 30-foot certificate may be certified to a depth of 60
feet after successfully completing, under supervision, 12 logged
training dives to depths between 31 and 60 feet, for a minimum total
time of 4 hours. Through similar procedures, a diver may qualify for
certification to the depth next greater than that shown on his
certificate. For depths of 100 and 130 feet, minimum total time
underwater during training dives shall be 2 hours. Depth certification
shall be validated by the signature of two authorized individuals who
are divers and are themselves certified to at least the same depth. The
diver shall also demonstrate proficiency in the use of the U. S. Navy
4.33 Certification to Depths Over 130 Feet
A diver may be certified to depths of 150 and 200 feet after the
completion of four dives near each depth. Dives shall be planned and
executed under close supervision of a diver certified to this depth. The
diver must also demonstrate a knowledge of the special problems of deep
diving and of special safety requirements.
MAINTENANCE OF CERTIFICATION
4.41 Term of Certificate
All diving certificates shall expire one year from the date of the last
medical examination, or four months from the date of the last logged
4.42 Diving Activity
During any 12 month period, each certified diver shall normally log a
total of 12 dives. At least one dive to the depth of certification shall
be made during each four month period. Divers certified to 150 feet or
over may satisfy these requirements with dives to 130 feet or over.
Failure to log dives to the depth of certification as above may be cause
for revocation or restriction of a certificate.
4.43 Annual Medical Examination
All certified divers shall pass an annual medical examination. After
each major illness or injury, certified divers shall submit to medical
interview and/or examination before resuming diving activities.
If a diver's certificate expires or is revoked, he may be recertified
after complying with such conditions as the Campus may impose.
4.50 REVOCATION OF CERTIFICATE
A diving certificate may be revoked or restricted for cause. Violation
of any regulations in this Guide or of the State Fish and Game code may
be considered cause. The diver shall be informed of the reasons for
revocation, and he will be given an opportunity to present his case.
SECTION FIVE SCUBA EQUIPMENT
5.10 SCUBA REGULATORS
Only those makes and models of regulators specifically approved by
Campus authorities shall be used.
5.12 Inspection and Maintenance
All SCUBA regulators procured by the University and those privately
owned and used on University projects shall be inspected and tested
before use and at six month intervals thereafter by a mechanic approved
by campus authorities.
A record of inspections and overhauls shall be maintained.
5.20 AUXILIARY SCUBA EQUIPMENT
All auxiliary SCUBA equipment shall be of a type approved by the campus
5.22 All corn pressed air tanks shall bear a valid test date, and shall
be tested in accordance with Interstate Commerce Commission regulations.
Before "first use" of any tank for diving, and annually thereafter, it
shall be examined by a qualified mechanic.
5.23 Harness and Weight Belts
Air tank harness, weight belts, and tanks shall be regularly examined by
the persons using them, and any defective gear shall be repaired or
replaced before further use.
All air tank harness and weight belts shall have quick release devices
designed to permit jettisoning the entire gear. The quick release device
must operate easily with either hand.
5.24 Depth Gauges
Only those makes and models of depth gauges specifically approved by the
campus shall be used. Gauges shall be inspected and tested before "first
use," and every six months thereafter. Inaccurate gauges shall not be
used under any circumstances until repaired. A record of inspections and
tests shall be maintained.
5.30 BREATHING-AIR STANDARDS
Breathing-air for SCUBA use shall meet the following specifications:
Oxygen ..................... 21° surface equivalent
Carbon Monoxide ............................ 10 ppm
Carbon Dioxide ............................. 500 ppm
Total Hydrocarbons (as Hexane using IR)5 ppm
Dust and Droplets of Oil and Water ..... Absent
Odors ............................................ Absent
These standards are similar to those used by the U. S. Navy and the
University of Washington.
Standards present by the Air Quality for Hyperbaric Environments, by
Peter A. Breysse,
M.S., M. P. H.
5.40 SOURCES OF BREATHING-AIR
A log shall be maintained showing operation, repair, overhaul, filter
maintenance, temperature adjustment, and results of all gas analyses and
air tests for all University-controlled breathing air compressor
apparatus. Records shall be available for audit.
5.42 Certification and Testing
Breathing-air from commercial sources approved by campus authorities
shall be certified by the supplier as suitable for breathing, according
to specifications in Section 5.30 or it shall be tested before use by
authorized University personnel.
5.43 Record of Vendor's Certification
One copy of vendor's certification or vendor's verification of
producer's certification for each lot of compressed air shall be filed
with the campus authorities.
5.44 Records of Testing
The results of tests of breathing air from commercial sources shall be
5.50 AIR COMPRESSORS
Water lubricated compressors are preferred for compressing air for
charging SCUBA tanks. 5.51 All compressor installations shall comply
with the following specifications:
(a) The air intake shall be provided with a filter and shall be located
to insure a supply of clean air, free from contamination by fumes,
(b) The discharged compressed air shall be passed to a
compressed air holder through frequently cleaned and recharged filters
designed to remove dust and droplets of oil and water, and to minimize
5.52 The following additional requirements apply to compressors that may
produce carbon monoxide or other toxic materials (e.g., oil lubricated
(a) Oil lubricated compressor cylinders and coolers shall be well
ventilated or otherwise cooled, or the operation cycled to insure
against high temperatures at which CO is formed from oil.
(b) An alarm or compressor-motor stop-control, activated by a
temperature-sensing device fitted to the high pressure compressor
cylinder, shall be provided and maintained in operation. The temperature
setting of the alarm or stop-control shall be checked periodically by
correlating normal operating temperatures with contaminant production
evidence on analysis of the compressed air.
SECTION SIX DIVING RULES
6.10 CERTIFICATION REQUIRED
No person shall engage in diving under the auspices of the University of
California unless he holds a valid certificate issued by a campus (See
6.11 Depth Limitations
A diver may not exceed his depth of certification more than one step. No
diver shall exceed his depth of certification unless accompanied by a
diver certified to a greater depth. No diver shall supervise more than
one diver who is exceeding the depth of his certification unless all
divers are certified to at least 100 feet. For the purpose of this
section, the steps are defined as: 30 feet, 60 feet, and 100 feet.
6.20 DIVING PROCEDURES
6.21 Solo Diving Prohibited
All dives shall be organized and conducted by certified divers in pairs,
unless the specific task (e.g., training), being undertaken requires
6.22 Diver's Flag
A Diver's Flag, red with diagonal white strip, shall be prominently
displayed whenever diving is conducted under circumstances in which boat
traffic is a possibility.
6.23 Flotation Device
On every dive all divers shall wear adequate flotation gear which has
been approved by the campus authorities.
6.24 Dives Over 100 Feet in Depth or Repetitive Dives
During dives to depths over 100 feet, or repetitive dives to lesser
depths, or in waters of unknown depths, at least one member of the
diving pair must have a watch and an approved depth indicator.
6.25 Dives Over 200 Feet in Depth
Divers certified to 200 feet may dive to greater depths only with
written permission. Application for approval shall be in writing and
shall describe the preparation, planning and purpose of the dive. A
written report shall be submitted at the completion of the dive,
describing the experiences of the divers while underwater and any
incidents or after-effects.
Current U. S. Navy Decompression Tables and Procedures shall be followed
during all diving operations unless another procedure or device is
6.31 Diving Log
Each certified diver shall log every dive made under University
auspices. Divers are encouraged to log all other dives, including sport
6.32 Information Required
The Diving Log shall be in a form specified by the campus, and shall
include at least the following:
(a) Name of Diver
(b) Name of Partner
(c) Date, depth and location of dive
(d) Approximate time under water
(e) Purpose of dive
(f) Detailed report of any accident or potentially dangerous incident.
6.33 Submission of Log
Log sheets shall normally be submitted monthly for audit.
6.40 DIVER'S RESPONSIBILITY
Ultimate responsibility for safety rests with the individual diver. It
is the diver's responsibility and duty to refuse to dive if, in his
judgment, conditions are unsafe or unfavorable, or if he would be
violating the precepts of his training or the regulations in this guide.
In emergencies when danger to life exists or is probable, divers may, at
their own discretion, violate these regulations. A written report of all
such incidents shall be submitted explaining the circumstances and
justifications for actions taken.
APPENDICES SUGGESTED CAMPUS ORGANIZATION
Each Chancellor is responsible for the underwater diving safety program
of his campus. To conduct this campus program, the following
organization is suggested to regulate diving activities at the campus
A. Environmental Health and Safety Officer
(a) The Environmental Health and Safety Officer should have the
authority to suspend diving programs that are unsafe.
(b) The Environmental Health and Safety Officer should meet with the
Diving Control Board as an ex-officio member.
The Environmental Health and Safety Officer should be responsible for:
(a) General surveillance over the health and safety aspects of the
diving program in accordance with the existing authority delegated under
the 1969 statement of University Policy and Organization for
Environmental Health and Safety. ,
(b) Audit of all diving program records pertaining to safety.
B. Campus Diving Control Board
The Diving Control Board is an administrative committee, appointed by
the Chancellor. It should be composed of experienced divers, including
the Campus Diving Officer. The E. H. & S. Officer should serve as an
The Diving Control Board should have the authority to recommend the
issue, reissue, and revocation of diving certificates. It should also
have authority to suspend diving operations or programs that it
considers unsafe or unwise.
The Diving Control Board should have the responsibility to:
, (a) Recommend to the Chancellor changes in policy and amendments to
the Campus Diving Safety Guide as the need arises.
Establish and/or approve training programs through which applicants for
certification can satisfy the requirements of this Guide.
(c) Approve locations where diving may be conducted under University
(d) Approve new equipment or techniques for campus use.
(e) Establish and/or approve facilities for the inspection and
maintenance of SCUBA and associated equipment.
C. Campus Diving Officer
The Chancellor may authorize the Diving Officer to restrict or suspend
any diving activity that is in his judgment unwise or unsafe. He should
inform the campus Diving Control Board of any such restrictive actions.
The Board may recommend to the Chancellor that the restriction or
suspension be overruled, but such a recommendation should require the
approval by vote of a majority of the members of the Board.
(a) Surveillance and coordination of all diving programs (instructional,
scientific, recreational, etc.) with special attention to safety. Assure
the implementation of all applicable campus policies and standards.
(b) Supervision of instruction and evaluation of all training programs.
(c) Evaluation and surveillance of equipment and equipment maintenance
programs, including arranging for or conducting tests of breathing gases
and the approval and/or certification of all University sources of
(d) Preparation of recommendations for consideration by the Diving
Control Board, such as changes in or additions to campus policy,
standards, and regulations to promote diving safety and efficiency;
changes in training programs; locations for University sponsored diving
programs; new equipment and individuals or organizations qualified to
II. SUGGESTED MEDICAL EVALUATION (SCUBA)
General— the applicant should be free of chronic disabling disease or
Visual Acuity— applicants and divers should be able to read a watch and
other appropriate gauges under diving conditions and be able to
recognize familiar objects at a distance on the surface. Persons needing
visual correction should have vision corrected, while diving, to the
highest possible acuity.
Tracing— should be done on each applicant to establish a base line by
which the diver may be appraised of any future hearing decrement. This
need not be grounds for denial of training or certification.
Vital Capacity— should be 100% or more. An athlete should have no
difficulty with this.
Hemogram— Hemoglobin should be 95% or over, the hemogram should indicate
normal gas transport mechanisms.
ENT— persons having acute or chronic sinus trouble should not dive
unless free drainage of the sinuses is assured. Congestion secondary to
URI or hay fever is a contraindication to diving until free passage of
air is possible. Individuals with acute or chronic ear trouble should
not dive until the drum has a normal appearance. Scarring from childhood
otitis is not a contraindication to diving. Healed perforations of the
drum of at least two months duration should not be harmed by diving,
with special care being taken to keep the ears well cleared during the
dive. Acute or chronic otitis externa with discharge, or moderate
amounts of cerumen in the external canal should be considered harmful in
diving until the canals are clear. Persons with acute upper respiratory
infections may be passed, but should be strictly cautioned against
diving until the URI has completely cleared. Decongestants which work
well on land have been known to fail in the water, and severe squeeze
can result. Bridgework or dentures should fit solidly.
Cardiovascular— disease which might prevent active exercise should be
cause for rejection of the application. Peripheral vascular disease
which might interfere with gas exchange in an extremity should be cause
Respiratory— persons with evidence of chronic lung disease, interference
with the free passage of air, or with poor gas exchange should be
rejected. A chest x-ray should be taken. A history of asthma in
childhood, with no attacks in the preceding three years, should not
preclude the patient's diving, as long as there is no residual evidence
of the disease.
Gastrointestinal— persons having chronic gastrointestinal disease,
including ulcer, should not dive if any symptoms are present.
Neuromuscular— the applicant should be able to demonstrate good ability
to perform all gross and minute tasks. Reflexes should be normal.
Endocrine— endocrine disturbances which would interfere with normal
oxygen carrying capacities or response to stress should prevent the
applicant from diving. Such entities would include severe
hypothyroidism, Addison's Disease, etc. Diabetics who are
well-controlled, and can participate in other strenuous sports without
loss of control of their disease should be able to dive fairly safely.
This decision must be a highly individualized one.
Neuropsychiatric— this area is obviously most difficult to evaluate. If
the response of the patient to stress is questionable, seriously
consider disqualifying him. Emergencies 40 feet below the surface
require cool judgment. The alternative is death, perhaps for his buddy
EMERGENCY PROCEDURES FOR UNIVERSITY
DIVERS IN THE LA JOLLA AREA
EMERGENCY PROCEDURES FOR UNIVERSITY DIVERS WORKING IN
THE LA JOLLA AREA
The common diving emergencies which may require assistance from
non-University groups may be separated into three categories:
1. Emergencies requiring recompression (Bends or Air-Embolism).
2. Emergencies requiring first aid and immediate transportation of the
injured person to a hospital (minor injuries, severe wounds).
3. Emergencies requiring immediate first aid and summoning of a
Physician to the injured person (drowning, or suspected spinal damage).
Successful treatment of these emergencies require medical assistance as
quickly as possible.
Skiff landings can usually be made inside the Casa Break Water*, the La
Jolla Cove*, the La Jolla Beach & Tennis Club, or SIO pier.
In the event of an emergency while diving from the beach, drop equipment
as necessary to assure speed and safety in assisting injured person
Each of the three categories of emergencies may require a different
procedure. First contact the Campus Police at 453-2000, extension 1333,
or 453-2671 after 5:30 and on weekends. State the nature of the
emergency and your exact location. The Campus Police will then notify
the proper persons and furnish transportation as necessary, (It may be
that life guard emergency transportation is more quickly available.)
1. Bends or Air-Embolism: Victim should be transported in a left side,
headdown position, and administered pure Oxygen when possible. If
operating from a skiff and there are boats in the immediate area with
radio equipment call Coast Guard on extension 2182 and have a helicopter
pick up the victim (and yourself if possible, to inform medical officer
of difficulty) and transport him to nearest recompression facility. If
no radio is available make a beach landing at the most convenient spot,
contact Campus Police and they will contact the submarine tenders and
Diving Officer. State your location and whether you wish them to furnish
transportation. When transporting victim to recompression chamber, left
side, headdown position should used and all speed possible.
2. Injury and severe wounds (shark bite, propeller cut, etc.):
Administer first aid as indicated. Upon reaching shore contact Campus
Police, state nature of injury, your location and whether you desire
transportation. Campus Police will in turn contact Student Health
Physician and Diving Officer. Transport victim to Scripps Memorial
Hospital Emergency Room, where arrangements will have been made for
* Life Guard Station with Emergency Vehicle.
3. Drowning (or suspected spinal damage): In case of
drowning, drop all weighted equipment. Victim should float horizontally.
Check mouth for obstructions. Start mouth-to-mouth respiration as soon
as possible. Continue artificial respiration as long as possible. If in
skiff try to signal passing boats or move victim to shore as quickly as
possible, preferably near life guard station. Have someone contact
Lifeguard and Campus Police, who will notify Student Health Physician
and Diving Officer. Continue artificial respiration until Doctor or
In case of suspected spinal injury, neck fracture, it may be best, if
close to shore to drop all weight and float victim into shore with as
little movement as possible. In shallow water attract attention of
people on beach. Campus Police should be notified so that they can alert
proper persons and furnish transportation as necessary. A blanket can be
used for a stretcher (with care to block rolling of head) but do not
move person except under supervision of Doctor.
If a diving emergency involving bends or air embolism occurs contact
Coast Guard and ask for air transportation to the nearest recompression
facility. Victim should be kept lying with head low, administer pure
oxygen when possible. Other types of emergency should be handled at
discretion of Ship's Doctor
INSTRUCTIONS TO UCSD CAMPUS POLICE:
When a call involving a Diving Emergency comes in, get the nature of the
emergency, the location of injured party, and notify Student Health
Three categories of emergency may arise:
1. Those requiring recompression (bends or air embolism): Notify
submarine tenders, either NERIUS or SPERRY, (714) 224-2734 or (714)
225-7560, 224-3991 that a person is being transported to Ballast Point
for treatment. Speed is of great importance in successful treatment of
either bends or embolism. An emergency vehicle should be dispatched if
needed (with flashing red light and siren) to transport victim to
Ballast Point or other area chamber specified by submarine tenders.
2. Most injuries, severe bleeding wounds (shark bite, propeller cut,
etc.): Notify Student Health Physician of nature of injury. Dispatch
emergency vehicle with flashing red light and siren to transport victim
to Scripps Memorial Hospital Emergency Room. Arrangements will have been
made by Student Health Physician for emergency room acceptance and
3. Notify Student Health Physician of nature of injury or difficulty.
Dispatch emergency vehicle with flashing red lights and siren to
location of injured person. Stand by for instructions from the Doctor,
or transport victim to Scripps Memorial Hospital Emergency room if
Doctor is not available.
INSTRUCTIONS TO UCSD SWITCHBOARD:
If a diving emergency call comes in to switchboard please interrupt
circuits as necessary to contact Campus Police, Student Health Physician
and Diving Officer.
First call should be made to:
Nerius ................................ (714) 224-2734
Sperry ............................... (714) 225-7560
Sperry ............................... (714) 224-3991
Quarterdeck where victim will go aboard. A doctor will be immediately
available at these two locations. Ambulance will receive instructions at
the base gate.
U. S. Naval Station .............. (714) 235-1478
No doctor immediately available but will recompress. Use this location
only if Nerius and Sperry are not available.
Diving Disease Transportation
(Policy of the Police Ambulances to transport)
1. Call Police ....................... (714) 232-6981
2. Ask for the "hot line" (this by-passes the business office where
normal phone traffic goes first).
3. Tell "hot line" the situation.
4. Then call to make arrangements for a recompression chamber.
5. Instruct ambulance driver when he arrives, where to take the victim.
RECOMPRESSION CHAMBER NUMBERS
Long Beach Naval Ship Yard
Long Beach, California
(213) 547-6524 Day
(213) 547-2970 Night
Santa Barbara, California
Ocean Systems Incorporated
Santa Barbara, California
154 Norman Firestone
Swan 6767 Hollister
Avalon Municipal Hospital
Avalon - 700
Naval Ordinance Test Station
San Clemente Island, California
547-6721 x351 or 311
Ask for Wilson Cove No. 1
(USN Fuel Depot)
San Pedro, California
Naval Ship Yard
San Francisco, California
(415) 799-0111 x 3448 or 3211
Presbyterian Medical Center
San Francisco, California
Good Samaritan Hospital
1212 Shatto Street
Los Angeles, California 90017
(213) 482-8111 x 413 or 415
This publication is one of a series intended to provide explicit
instructions for the collection of oceanographic data and samples at
sea. Individual chapters are being issued separately so that they may be
made available as they are prepared and may be replaced by updated
versions without replacing the entire series. It can, therefore, be
considered as an open-ended "marine technician's handbook."
For many years there have been such manuals in existence within various
groups at the Scripps Institution of Oceanography for internal use.
These manuals are being updated, and new ones are being prepared where
no satisfactory ones existed; they will be issued as they are ready.
The Instructions on physical, biological, and chemical oceanographic
data collection and processing have been prepared by members of the Data
Collection and Processing Group (DCPG), part of the Marine Life Research
Group of Scripps. They cover procedures used by that group. Other
chapters on geological and geophysical techniques are based on the
"Marine Technician's Handbook" series originally prepared by Mr.
Frederick S. Dixon and issued by the Oceanic Research Division some
years ago. It is expected that chapters on techniques used by other
groups within Scripps will be added.
Since the sections will be published individually, there will
undoubtedly be some repetition. This should not detract from the overall
purpose of the manual, since it is expected that a single section will
be the only one needed for a particular operation. We do not wish to
suggest that the methods described are the only methods; we have merely
attempted to describe the methods and procedures which we use and which
we have found to be reliable and up-to-date. As new information becomes
available, attempts are made to test techniques, incorporate them into
routine procedures, and then revise the chapter concerned.
In the final analysis the reliability and quality of the data obtained
is in your hands. It is imperative that meticulous attention be given to
details to insure reliability and usefulness in the results you obtain.
While we have attempted to be thorough in descriptions of techniques,
this cannot be considered to be a complete "cookbook" for the novice. It
is in most cases assumed that the reader has some prior knowledge and
training in the field concerned. We hope, however, that these
instructions can serve as a training aid for the novice marine
technician, a "cookbook" for the scientist who is taking his own
observations, and a reference manual for the experienced technician.
Preparation of these chapters over the years has been supported by the
University of California and by grants and contracts from the many
federal agencies to the Scripps Institution of Oceanography and to the
Institute of Marine Resources. Support for preparation of this more
complete and revised manual has come from the National Sea Grant
This chapter of THE MARINE TECHNICIAN'S HANDBOOK and the accompanying
UNIVERSITY GUIDE FOR DIVING SAFETY have been prepared by James R.
Stewart, Diving Safety Officer of Scripps Institution of Oceanography,
in consultation with Alfred N. Rea, Environmental Health and Safety
Officer, UCSD. The information on diving safety, in particular, has been
set forth by the University Conference of Environmental Health and
G. G. Shor, Jr.
Sea Grant Program Manager
Procedures for Shipboard Diving
November 15, 1971
by James R. Stewart
Shipboard diving is quite different from small boat diving or
shore-based operations and is, therefore, worthy of comments to aid the
inexperienced. At all times it must be understood that the ship's master
has final decisions in any operation concerning his vessel.
I. Cruise Planning
Any cruise involving diving operations should be planned in advance to
allow loading positioning and securing of critical equipment, i.e.,
compressors, volume bank, diving tanks, etc. The compressor should be
positioned with intake toward the bow of the ship (the ship will swing
into the wind while at anchor), away from exhausts from main, auxiliary,
or any other engines, and free from fume contamination from paint
lockers, or gasoline and other solvent handling. Cool running of the
compressor requires good ventilation, and should be perhaps used only at
night in hot climates. When filling air cylinders, salt water from the
ship's sea-water system may be turned on the tanks as a coolant.
Oil-lubricated compressors should have some type of oil/water separator
built into the system and it is highly desirable to have a filtration
column which eliminates CO, C02, hydrocarbons, oil, water, and any other
contaminants in accordance with breathing air specifications. Also
desirable is a small colorimetric test kit to determine air quality,*
Permanent compressor installations should be under jurisdiction of the
ship's engineering staff for maintenance purposes, and a log kept for
review of appropriate oil and filter changes.
II. Diving Equipment
Diving equipment should be stored in an area where it can be dried. This
designated "Diving Locker" should be well ventilated, and lockable, with
the key under the supervision of the ship's master. Minimum equipment
includes two complete sets of the following:
(b) air cylinders and back packs
(c) depth gauges
(e) fins (with adjustable straps)
(h) weight belts and at least a total of 40 pounds of weights (i)
inflatable life vests
A tank pressure gauge, an assortment of "goody" bags, and spares of the
gear listed above are additional basic requirements. Personal wet suits
and watches are provided by each diving individual.
Surface signals (flares, whistles) and some sort of anti-shark devices
are required in open sea diving. They must be included and used.
These may be obtained from Mine Safety Appliance Corporation, Draeger
Corporation and Kitagowa Corporation.
III. Pre-Diving Procedures
The ship's captain ultimately has authority over diving operations from
his vessel. He should insure that those proposing to dive have proper
authorization, either University Certification cards or "letters of
approval." All diving is to be conducted in accordance with the
University Guide for Diving Safety. The Senior Diver, determined during
the Cruise Planning phase, will act as liaison with the ship's crew, and
act as supervisor of diving operations. His responsibilities include
insuring that proper equipment is available in good condition, logging
divers in and out of the water, considering emergency and standby
equipment and procedures, and maintaining proper records.
Liaison, besides general communication, between diving and other
personnel, specifically involves notifying the captain, the ship's
engineers, and the cook (garbage overboard is an attractant), of
preparations for diving operations, and transmitting a safe go-ahead
response to the divers before anyone enters the water.
IV. Diving Procedures
Small boats or rafts are generally necessary for water entry, for use as
platforms, or for transportation. A third person, at least, should
remain in the boat. Currents often are sufficiently fast to prohibit a
diver from swimming up-stream to return to the boat. When a dive is made
under the hull or when current direction is known, entry to the water
should be made over the bow and the anchor line used for descent; divers
obviously should work upstream away from the ship, remembering currents
tend to be fastest toward the surface.
Under-way diving necessitates two boat tenders, one to bubble-watch and
assist the divers, and one to run the boat. In advance of the exercise
the best plan should be determined to permit the divers to stay together
while the boat maneuvers to them. Inflatable life vests and anti-shark
devices (knives) must be worn/carried in open sea diving work.
Fishing and diving operations must never be carried on simultaneously.
If diving under the ship is imperative due to fouling of the propeller,
heavy tools ought to be lowered to the diver in a "goody" bag. One
diver, of a pair, should work while a second acts as lookout. (Before
any water entry, divers should check to see if sharks are following the
V. Emergency Procedures
Routines and equipment should be outlined before embarking. The ship's
physician should have knowledge of diving accidents and requisite first
aid procedures. References such as U.S. Navy Diving Manual should be
included in his library. Recompression chambers and the means of getting
a diver to one, ought to be charted for the entire itinerary.
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